Angela Cutone, Brianna Duffy, Brendan Murphy, and Caroline Murphy
Benjamin Franklin wrote the speech of Polly Baker as a work of fiction which worked to represent a court case of a woman named Polly Baker. Although still unsure, it is believed that the speech was written in 1746, but it was first published in London’s The General Advertiser on April 15, 1747. It was also published in multiple other newspapers, including some in the states. The author was unknown for a long time and the whole time it was believed the the story of Polly Baker was true. In 1788 Benjamin Franklin revealed it was he who wrote the speech. The speech moved many Europeans and was used to help with reformation.
In this work, we are introduced to the main character Miss Polly Baker and her plight. She is arguing her case in front of a court of law, without a lawyer, because she is unable to afford one. Polly Baker has been charged five times with having children outside of wedlock, and has been punished by both fines and public humiliation. She questions the fairness of the law in general. She states that in her eyes, the law is unreasonable and that she has done nothing wrong. Polly says that her life has been inoffensive, and that she has never committed a crime. She says that she has brought children into the world, risking her life and doing everything she can to allow them to live and grow up.
Polly begins her main argument by saying that she is not against being married and is still willing to enter into marriage, even after being married once, trusting some man completely and being betrayed. This man left her with a child. He was never punished, and instead became a Magistrate of the courts. She questions why she is punished and he is allowed to advance to a place of power within the government; why is she the one being punished for something that is not even her fault to begin with?
She believes that instead God is happy with her deeds and she has simply taken part in the natural process of increasing and multiplying the population.
Finally, she mentions the increasing number of single men, who are scared of how expensive raising a family is and simply do not reproduce. Polly compares this to being no better than a murder and being a greater offence to the public good than what she has been charged with. Polly argues that women are powerless to do anything, as they are punished for it if it is outside wedlock. In the ending statement, she thinks that instead of public punishment, a statue should be erected in her honor and memory because she has not committed a crime, but instead furthered the public good with her actions, and endured the wrongful punishments that accompanied them.
The format of this essay is definitely something to be noted. Given that it is in the form of a testimony before a court, the syntax is formal, but simple to understand. Polly Baker is, understandably, frustrated with the circumstances surrounding this trial and her having been brought to trial for the fifth time, and thus has an irate, righteous, and vaguely outraged tone. However, read from the perspective of satire, Benjamin Franklin’s overall purpose gives this entire piece another side, another edge and another tone. His tone is caustic and pointed, directly attacking the patriarchy for their hypocrisy on this matter. Through the use of more simple diction, Franklin makes this story easy for anyone to understand, as the issue of a lack of women’s rights affects everyone. The format of a trial puts this issue on trial–should women be given more rights? He leaves the resolution open ended for the reader to decide, but it leaves everyone thinking about the points Polly Baker made.
Why is it important?:
The speech of Miss Polly Baker is very important because it touches upon the gender inequality that is prevalent in society. Miss Polly Baker is a single mother of five who was once married but her husband left her with a child to become a court magistrate. After her first marriage Miss Polly Baker then had four more children leaving her with five in total, all of which she will get fined for. It is unfair to fine Polly Baker because she has provided well for her children with no help from anyone else. This can be considered a feminist piece of writing because Polly Baker is proving that even though she is a woman she is self sufficient and can provide for all of her children on her own without the help of a man, even with the fines and public humiliation Polly Baker is a strong woman.
Benjamin Franklin wrote Essay 8 under the pseudonym Silence Dogood in July of 1722. This essay was a letter for the Author of the “New-England Courant”, to put in his newspaper,in which Benjamin Franklin quotes an article previously printed in the “London Journal”. In this essay Silence Dogood writes about freedom of speech as well as freedom of the press for printers.
Silence discusses the benefits of freedom of speech by stating that “Without freedom of thought there can be no such thing as wisdom”. Freedom of thought fosters the growth of intelligence in mankind through free speech and by taking the freedom away the world is left unchanged and non evolving. Although freedom of speech is beneficial there must be limits put in place so that no person is left offended or hurt by another. Freedom of speech is essential in a nation so the citizens within have a say in the government so that they can be governed in a fair and free way. Benjamin Franklin speaks of King Charles the Fifth and his decree banning freedom of speech and creating complete opacity in the government by doing so. When a freedom is taken away by the government the citizens begin to rebel, especially when ban takes away the translucency of the government. The government is essentially dealing with “the interests and affairs of the people” and when the citizens are taken out of the government tyranny takes over and creates a non working nation. High ranking officials take away freedoms so they can have complete control over their citizens and because “Only the wicked governors of men dread what is said of them”.
When a nation is governed with the citizens and equality in mind as well as taking in the suggestions of the people then the nation is able to prosper and live in peace. It is best to represent “public measures truly when they are honest” because it can benefit the government and the people.
The parents of Benjamin Franklin, Josiah and Abiah Franklin, were buried under the Franklin family burial plot along with many others of the Franklin family at the Granary Burial Ground in Boston. Benjamin Franklin erected the obelisk in memorial of his parents who were hardworking soap makers. The epitaph of the monument encourages readers to, “Diligence in thy Calling,
And distrust not Providence.”. The inscription tells readers that if they work hard then God will treat them well in the future.